Sunday, November 20, 2011

Samantha at Idea South Filmfare 2011

Photos Of Samantha at Idea South Filmfare 2011
Samantha at Idea South Filmfare 2011 
Samantha at Idea South Filmfare 2011 
Samantha at Idea South Filmfare 2011 
Samantha at Idea South Filmfare 2011 
Samantha at Idea South Filmfare 2011 
Samantha at Idea South Filmfare 2011 
Samantha at Idea South Filmfare 2011 

Electric Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG | E-Cell Prototype

Electric Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG | E-Cell Prototype
Electric Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG | E-Cell Prototype
Electric Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG | E-Cell Prototype
Electric Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG | E-Cell Prototype
Electric Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG | E-Cell Prototype
Electric Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG | E-Cell Prototype
Electric Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG | E-Cell Prototype
Electric Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG | E-Cell Prototype

Mercedes First Electric Car Information & Pictures

Not too long ago, Mercedes announced that the Mercedes-Benz S400 BlueHybrid, pictured, would be the (likely) first production hybrid that uses lithium-ion batteries. The li-ion steak may be juicier that we expected, if this post over at Benz Insider is on target. BI is saying that a source within MB's Stuttgart Research Center has revealed that Daimler AG is developing a mid- or large-size electric-powered luxury vehicle. While a plug will certainly charge the battery packs, a "small dynamo like device" in the vehicle can also provide energy to - but not fully recharge - the battery. Sounds like a range extender to us, but with a rumored battery-only range of 105 miles, who will need it? We've put in a request to Daimler for more info, because, um, I think we're pretty interested in a car like this.
[Source: Benz Insider]
We have recently learned, from a source close to Mercedes Benz and its Research Center in Stuttgart, that the Daimler AG is working on a vehicle “which will revolutionize the luxury auto market,” as they put it. The “revolutionary” vehicle will be an all electric mid-size to large luxury vehicle, and will feature alithium-ion battery that can be recharged two ways. The first option will be with a direct plug-in, and the other option will be a small dynamo like device that will charge the battery while the car is driving. In current tests, the battery was able to get 170 km (approx 105 miles) before it had to be charged again, which means that the dynamo itself can only partially recharge the battery.
It’s still not fully know which vehicle might get this technology, but if we look at some of the most recent developments, we can probably find the one that will most like be released with a electric motor. In a post we wrote in late February, we reported that Mercedes has acquired 25 patents for a lithium-ion technology to be used in the S 400 BlueHYBRID beginning next year. We also reported a couple of time on the GLK and its Hybrid intentions. If we were to throw out a educated guess here, we would probably say that the S-Class and the GLK, maybe even ML, will be the first “luxury’ all electric powered vehicles in the market.

Here is the most important questions for consumers. When will it come out? According to our source, a fully electric powered vehicle from Mercedes will come in the form of a new model/generation vehicle. If our prediction is right, and it is the S-Class, then we can expect the EV sometime in 2011 or possibly even as early as 2010, as that is when a new model is scheduled.
According To(
The zero-emission SLS AMG E-Cell boasts a power output of 535hp and 868lbs of torque, giving it a 0-62mph time of four seconds - that's almost as fast as its 6.2-litre V8-powered SLS AMG sibling, which makes the same dash in 3.8 seconds.
Aimed at proving that the firm is looking forward to the "challenges of motoring of the future", the high-voltage Gullwing offers what Mercedes calls "the prospect of a possible small series production run" at the same time as reflecting the firm's "innovative strength".
"We take social responsibility very seriously and with the SLS AMG E-Cell we are demonstrating a further milestone in our "AMG Performance 2015" strategy," said Ola Källenius, chairman of the board of Mercedes-AMG GmbH.
"It is our goal to continually reduce the fuel consumption and emissions of new models in the coming years, while at the same time enhancing the core brand value of performance."
The E-Cell features four electric motors - one for each wheel - each capable of maximum engine speeds of 12,000rpm, with maximum torque available from "virtually a standstill", says Mercedes-Benz.

History of Computing Hardware

The history of computing hardware is the record of the ongoing effort to make computer hardware faster, cheaper, and capable of storing more data.
Computing hardware evolved from machines that needed separate manual action to perform each arithmetic operation, to punched card machines, and then to stored-program computers. The history of stored-program computers relates first to computer architecture, that is, the organization of the units to perform input and output, to store data and to operate as an integrated mechanism . Secondly, this is a history of the electronic components and mechanical devices that comprise these units. Finally, we describe the continuing integration of 21st-century supercomputers, networks, personal devices, and integrated computers/communicators into many aspects of today's society. Increases in speed and memory capacity, and decreases in cost and size in relation to compute power, are major features of the history. As all computers rely on digital storage, and tend to be limited by the size and speed of memory, the history of computer data storage is tied to the development of computers.


Before the development of the general-purpose computer, most calculations were done by humans. Mechanical tools to help humans with digital calculations were then called "calculating machines", by proprietary names, or even as they are now, calculators. It was those humans who used the machines who were then called computers; there are pictures of enormous rooms filled with desks at which computers (often young women) used their machines to jointly perform calculations, as for instance, aerodynamic ones required for in aircraft design.
Calculators have continued to develop, but computers add the critical element of conditional response and larger memory, allowing automation of both numerical calculation and in general, automation of many symbol-manipulation tasks. Computer technology has undergone profound changes every decade since the 1940s.
Computing hardware has become a platform for uses other than mere computation, such as process automation, electronic communications, equipment control, entertainment, education, etc. Each field in turn has imposed its own requirements on the hardware, which has evolved in response to those requirements, such as the role of the touch screen to create a more intuitive and natural user interface.
Aside from written numerals, the first aids to computation were purely mechanical devices which required the operator to set up the initial values of an elementary arithmetic operation, then manipulate the device to obtain the result. A sophisticated (and comparatively recent) example is the slide rule in which numbers are represented as lengths on a logarithmic scale and computation is performed by setting a cursor and aligning sliding scales, thus adding those lengths. Numbers could be represented in a continuous "analog" form, for instance a voltage or some other physical property was set to be proportional to the number. Analog computers, like those designed and built byVannevar Bush before World War II were of this type. Numbers could be represented in the form of digits, automatically manipulated by a mechanical mechanism. Although this last approach required more complex mechanisms in many cases, it made for greater precision of results.
Both analog and digital mechanical techniques continued to be developed, producing many practical computing machines. Electrical methods rapidly improved the speed and precision of calculating machines, at first by providing motive power for mechanical calculating devices, and later directly as the medium for representation of numbers. Numbers could be represented by voltages or currents and manipulated by linear electronic amplifiers. Or, numbers could be represented as discrete binary or decimal digits, and electrically controlled switches and combinational circuits could perform mathematical operations.
The invention of electronic amplifiers made calculating machines much faster than their mechanical or electromechanical predecessors.Vacuum tube (thermionic valve) amplifiers gave way to solid state transistors, and then rapidly to integrated circuits which continue to improve, placing millions of electrical switches (typically transistors) on a single elaborately manufactured piece of semi-conductor the size of a fingernail. By defeating the tyranny of numbers, integrated circuits made high-speed and low-cost digital computers a widespread commodity.

Top 10 Electric Cars In the World

No.1#• Electric luxury Maserati Tramontane
maserati tramontane pym1g 3868
maserati tramontane pym1g 3868
Info: Designed by Ondrej Jirec, the Maserati Tramontane is a concept vehicle which is developed as a part of his studies at the Art Center College of Design in Pasadena. It’s a lightweight electric luxury supercar, and its design is intended to lower the weight, reduce the No. of body parts, and to simplify building process while combining interior and exterior elements. 
No.2Citroen Eco-Luxury sedan
citroen eco luxury sedan
citroen eco luxury sedan
Info: The Citroen Eco-Luxury sedan concept from designer Ankit Prashar has a different touch for Citroen’s design language. The luxury vehicle is all-electric with a lithium-ion battery powering the in-wheel electric motors. A fuel cell works as a range extender and charges the batteries when needed, to top it all, solar panels on the roof supply energy for the concept’s lighting system.
No.3Mercedes all-electric luxury car
mercedes all electric luxury car
mercedes all electric luxury car
Info: It was just a while Mercedes announced that the Mercedes-Benz S400 BlueHybrid would be the first production hybrid that uses lithium-ion batteries. BI is saying that a source within MB’s Stuttgart Research Center has revealed that Daimler AG is developing a mid- or large-size electric-powered luxury vehicle. 
No.4Fisker Luxury Electric Car
fisker luxury electric car
fisker luxury electric car
Info: Fisker Automotive released the photos of what they called the final production version of the Fisker Karma luxury plug-in hybrid electric sedan before its official debut at the 2009 North American International Auto Show. Company is to set to start rolling of the production line at the end of this year.
No.5Mitsubishi All-Electric Car
mitsubishi all electric car
mitsubishi all electric car
Info: Mitsubishi has unveiled this all-electric concept car called the i MIEV Sport in September 2007. Besides being a zero-emission vehicle, the car incorporates a solar roof, two compact wind turbines built into the front grill, and a regenerative braking system. 
No.6Aston Martin’s Lagonda
aston martins lagonda
aston martins lagonda
Info: Aston Martin’s Lagonda concept car, which is a four-door, four-seat sports car maintains its distinct and sporty image in the car world. This vehicle from Aston Martin will be a luxury sports car made using cutting-edge technology and innovative new materials. 
No.7Fisker’s sporty Eco-Chic
fiskers sporty eco chic
fiskers sporty eco chic
Info: The Fisker four-door premium ‘Eco-Chic’, plug-in hybrid sports sedan comes in gas or diesel engines and offers as many as 620 miles between refueling. The plug-in charge is good for the first 50 miles and the hybrid drive can squeeze up to 100 miles per gallon out of fossil fuels. The car has a battery pack at the center to deliver improved driving dynamics, better balance, maximum safety, and ’some’ good looks.
No.8Koenigsegg’s electric Quant car
koenigsegg solar powered supercar
koenigsegg solar powered supercar
Info: Koenigsegg unveiled their electric vehicle concept Quant at the 2009 Geneva Motor Show. The vehicle has a mammoth 512hp and 527 pound-ft of torque. The entire torque is available at 1 rpm and stays on until the maximum motor speed. While they were at it, they decided the concept’s two motors should be powered by rapid charge capable batteries. 
No.9Cadillac XTS Platinum
cadillac xts platinum concept jiwpr 3868
cadillac xts platinum concept jiwpr 3868
Info: In a bid to give the German luxury cars a genuine competition, Cadillac unveiled its XTS Platinum concept at the 2010 Detroit Auto Show. This model is all set to replace two of Cadillac models viz. STS and aging DTS. The concept flaunts Cadillac’s emerging top of the line Platinum series of models, emphasizing new expressions of luxury and technological features.
No.10All Electric Tesla
telsa electric car
telsa electric car
Info: The all-electric Tesla Roadster is already a darling of the masses. The wonderful car has been hailed for its supreme performance and amazing clean drive. The Roadster seems to it from 0 to 60 in a flash and all that is done with absolute silence. The instant acceleration and the sudden braking are kept under control by a very efficient traction control system. 
No.11Dodge Circuit EV
dodge circuit ev
dodge circuit ev
Info: The car that was nothing more than a Lotus Europa with an electric powertrain and Dodge badges now at least looks kind of like it belongs in a Dodge dealership .The front fascia now sports the traditional Dodge cross-hair grille while the posterior gets cleaner look with a small diffuser. New wheels and a coat of orange paint that Chrysler’s press release dubbs”Tangoreen” round out the visual changes.

Friday, November 18, 2011

Louis Daguerre Photos

French engraver and daguerreotype developer Louis Daguerre Photo
Louis Daguerre Art
Louis Daguerre Photo
 Louis Daguerre Statue
Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre (18 November 1787 Р10 July 1851) Photo
Photo of Louis Daguerre, Born November 1787,and  died July 10 1851
Louis Daguerre's Photography

Louis Daguerre Daguerreotype Ten Steps Process

Louis Jacques Mande DAGUERRE (1787-1851)
The daguerreotype process was the first practicable method of obtaining permanent images with a camera. The man who gave his name to the process and perfected the method of producing direct positive images on a silver-coated copper plate was Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre, a French artist and scenic painter. Daguerre had began experimenting with ways of fixing the images formed by thecamera obscura around 1824, but in 1829 he entered into partnership with Joseph Nicephore Niepce(1765-1833), a French amateur scientist and inventor who, in 1826, had succeeded in securing a picture of the view from his window by using a a camera obscura and a pewter plate coated with bitumen. Niepce called his picture-making process heliography ("sun drawing"), but although he had managed to produce a permanent image using a camera, the exposure time was around 8 hours. Niepce later abandoned pewter plates in favour of silver-plated sheets of copper and discovered that the vapour from iodine reacted with the silver coating to produce silver iodide, a light sensitive compound.
After the death of Niepce in 1833, Daguerre continued to experiment with copper plates coated with silver iodide to produce direct positive pictures. Daguerre discovered that the latent image on an exposed plate could be brought out or "developed" with the fumes from warmed mercury. The use ofmercury vapour meant that photographic images could be produced in twenty to thirty minutes rather than hours. In 1837, Daguerre found a way of "fixing" the photographic images with a solution of common salt. Two years later, he followed the suggestion of Sir John Herschel (1792-1871) and adopted hyposulphate of soda (now thiosulphate of soda ) as the fixing agent.
Daguerre began making successful pictures using his improved process from 1837. On 19th August,1839, at a meeting in Paris, the Daguerreotype Process was revealed to the world.
In England, Richard Beard (1801-1885), a former coal merchant and patent speculator, bought the patent to Alexander Wolcott's mirror camera and employed the services of John Frederick Goddard (1795-1866), a chemist, to find a way of reducing exposure times to less than a few minutes, thereby making it possible to take daguerreotype portraits. On 23rd March 1841, Richard Beard opened England’s first daguerreotype portrait studio in London's Regent Street. In June 1841, Beard purchased from Daguerre the patent rights to the daguerreotype process in England.
Ten Steps in Making a Daguerreotype Process
1. Polishing and Buffing the Photographic Plate
A plate of silver-coated copper is cleaned and highly polished with a soft cloth, using pumice powder and oil. The plate is continually polished and buffed until the silvered surface has a mirror-like brilliance.
2. Sensitizing the Photographic Plate
The polished plate is sensitized by exposing it to iodine and bromine fumes. The plate is first suspended in an air tight compartment containing chloride of iodine until the surface of the silvered plate turns yellow. The iodized plate is then suspended face down over chloride of bromine fumes. The two chemicals combine with the silver coating of the plate to form a light sensitive surface. ( Some daguerreotype artists used a combination of chlorine and iodinevapours ).
3. Loading the Camera
The sensitized plate is inserted into alight-proof holder with a protective slide and placed inside the camera.
4. Taking the Likeness
The subject is placed in front of the camera. If necessary, the pose is held with the assistance of adjustable head rests, clamps and posing stands.
The protective slide is removed and, when the photographer is satisfied with the pose and expression of the sitter, the lens cap is removed for a period of time until the image is captured on the sensitized surface of the plate.
5. Developing the Image
The image is "brought out" by suspending the photographic plate over a dish of mercury inside afuming box. The mercury is heated by a spirit lamp and the fumes from the mercury combine with the silver salts to produce a clear image on the plate.
6. Fixing the Image
Fixing the image with hyposulphate of soda
The photographic image is made permanent by bathing the photographic plate in hyposulphate of soda ( or sodium thiosulphite ).

7. Gold Toning or Gilding ( optional )
The image on the the photographic plate can also be toned and strengthened by treating the plate with gold chloride
8. Washing the Photographic Plate
Finally, the photographic plate is washed in distilled water and dried.

9. Colouring ( optional )
The portrait could be coloured by hand. The surface of the plate was coated with a thin film of gum arabic and left to dry. The colourist would then breathe on the treated plate to make it sticky and with a fine paintbrush applied dry powdered pigment to the image.
A hand-coloured daguerreotype portrait of a woman by William Edward Kilburn, who opened a studio in Regent Street, London in 1846. William Kilburn was famous for his hand-coloured daguerreotype portraits, which were compared to painted portrait miniatures.

10. Mounting and Presenting the Finished Daguerreotype Portrait
The finished daguerreotype portrait was surrounded by a gilt or brass mat, covered with a sheet of protective glass, and bound in a metal frame. The daguerreotype portrait was presented in a velvet or plush-lined, leather case, or mounted in a decorative frame.

Louis Daguerre Daguerreotype

History and Development of Forensic Science up to the 20th Century

Key People

  • Fortunatus Fidelis- first person to practice forensic medicine
  • Sir Francis Galton- developed first basic system for classifying fingerprints based on grouping the patterns into arches, loops, and whorls
  • Alphonse Bertillion- French criminologist who applied techniques of human body measurement used in anthropological classification to the identification of criminals
  • Zacharias Janssen- Dutch lens-maker who invented first compound microscope

  • Louis Daguerre- first photograph- "daguerreotype"
  • Mathieu Orfila- “Father of Toxicology,” wrote Traite des Poisons
  • William Talbot- invented the photographic negative
  • Henry Goddard- first to trace bullet back to gun successfully
  • Cesare Lombroso- said criminals had certain physical features
  • Francesco Patrizi- made early type of lie detector that failed

Key Terms

  1. Forensic medicine- application of medical knowledge to legal questions

  1. Compound microscope- microscope with more than one lensi1.gif
  2. Forensic science- scientific method of collecting and gathering evidence.
Mathieu Orfila

Case Study

France, 1840: A 24-year-old woman named Marie Lafarge was charged with poisoning her husband. She had been seen buying arsenic "to kill her rats" and it was also rumored that she was unhappy with her marriage. Lawyers on both sides were arguing and the methods scientists used to prove that Lafarge had killed her husband kept being doubted or disproved. Both sides agreed to consult Mathieu Orfila, "Father of Toxicology." Orfila took samples from the husband's body and the soil that he was buried in. Orfila found traces of arsenic in the body and proved that it did not come from the surrounding soil, making the jury decide that Lafarge was guilty and she was sentenced to life in jail.